STUDIO PRACTICE 2B AND TECHNIQUES AND PROCESSES 2B – Key features of the early English Church identified by period identifying symbolism and architectural structure with archaeological findings

STUDIO PRACTICE 2B AND TECHNIQUES AND PROCESSES 2B

Study of the Early English Church from the 11th to the late 16th century

Key features of the early English Church identified by period identifying symbolism and architectural structure with archaeological findings

Anglo Saxon:

Through my research investigations I have determined that these are the characteristics of Anglo Saxon Architecture

  1. A porticus
  2. A tall and narrow tower
  3. Archaeological findings such as a bone pin in the churchyard at Bramham
  4. Angle quoins (Dewsbury)
  5. Proof of the earliest saints preaching at Dewsbury (St. Paulinus, 627) from St Bede’s Ecclesiastical Writings
  6. The Domesday Book (1086) reference to two churches in the manor of Wakefield
  7. Patchwork of different stone types to suggest that a number of West Yorkshire Churches are pre-Conquest in date.
  8. A collection of stones in Kirkheaton (Tolsen Museum, Huddersfield)

Norman (Romanesque):

Through my research investigations I have determined that these are the characteristics of Norman Architecture

  1. Bay windows become increasingly complex – Durham Cathedral
  2. Overlapping evidence of arcades, windows and fonts Anglo Saxon to Norman
  3. The East End of the church ending in an apse
  4. The existence of a gallery or a large vaulted crypt
  5. The presence of a pulpitum screen or circular church
  6. Mouldings as an attached shaft
  7. Geometric pattern, distinctive ornament/scale of design – (Adel Church, Pontefract Priory, Kirkstall Abbey)
  8. Herringbone Fabric (York) and (Kippax Chancel)
  9. Norman Doorway (dates 1150-60 St John the Baptist, Adel)
  10. Golden Candlestick and the Tree of Life (St John the Baptist, Adel)
  11. Radial and Concentric rolls within a series of Grotesque Masks
  12. Norman Arcades –Bardsey, Bramham and Guiseley
  13. Decorative Carving, doorways and south naves
  14. Norman Fonts – Whitechapel in Cleckheaton (Sheild-na-gig) a Celtic fertility figure

The Birth of the Gothic Transitional:

Through my research investigations I have determined that these are the characteristics of the Birth of the Gothic Transitional Architecture

  1. The pointed arch
  2. The Rib Vault
  3. Flying Buttresses – all three changes begin to be reflected in churches also: Kirkburton being the most complete
  4. Chancel is a screen wall behind the altar also Kirkburton
  5. Doorway on the north side – Kirkburton
  6. Nave Arcades at Bradford Cathedral and Wakefield
  7. 13th century quatrefoil piers at Bradford cathedral and wakefield are indicative of an earlier period which makes them difficult to date
  8. Timberwork Structure – simple in form at Elland
  9. Structure of the windows – belied by breadth and circularity at the top indicative of an earlier period – 13th century
  10. More complex structure beginning – Kippax

Gothic I: Early English:

Through my research investigations I have determined that these are the characteristics of Gothic I: Early English Architecture

  1. Equilateral arches – Lincoln Cathedral
  2. Nail head and capitals
  3. Stiff leaf
  4. Strong effects of light and shade arriving at a linear quality – South Transcept York Minster
  5. Linear Foliage – motifs and stiff leaf (York Minster)

Gothic II: Decorated

Through my research investigations I have determined that these are the characteristics of Gothic II: Decorated Architecture

  1. Crockets and finials
  2. Micro architecture
  3. The lierne (a type of rib vault) – Lincoln Cathedral
  4. The Ogee
  5. Crinkley or seaweed foliage (to assist the mason in creating green men, beasts and other grotesques)
  6. Original variants in west Yorkshire on the theme of stair building and having access to tower developed from a cruxiform design

Gothic III: Perpendicular

Through my research investigations I have determined that these are the characteristics of Gothic III: Perpendicular Architecture

  1. Curve gives way to straight line
  2. A single defining motif – the ballflower – ball shaped fruit with a three lobed mouth
  3. Paneling – Circenester
  4. Perpendicular style is unique to the English style
  5. The fan vault is a diagnostic feature and located in aisles, cloisters and chantry chapels – York Minster (east window)
  6. Tudor arches and massive fan vaults and pendants
  7. An infusion of motifs from the continent seen in timber frames and flamboyant tracery
  8. New style reflected repeatedly in other buildings
  9. Late medieval roofs in survival – Methley, Ilkley, Addingham and Elland recurring theme of the truss
  10. Paneled ceilings – dramatic angels over the nave at Bradford Cathedral and Wakefield
  11. Chantry Chapel – Waterton Chapel South side of the chancel at Methley

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